Logo of the Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research

With the status of CoE-LaSR, we will, together with our co-operators, focus on the following goal:

Laser Scanning is omnipresent and affecting positively to the life of every citizen in modern information society by early 2020.



Logo of FGI Logo of the University of Oulu Logo of the University of Helsinki Logo of Aalto University

Selected publications of the CoE-LaSR consortium until 2013

Pulsed time-of-flight laser radar

Duan, G., Vainshtein, S., Kostamovaara,J. Three-dimensional peculiarities in an avalanche transistor provide a broadened range of amplitudes and durations of the generated pulses, Applied Physics Letters, Volume: 101, Issue: 17, 2012, pp. 173506 - 173506-4

Figure: Photon emission from the corners of the emitter-base –perimeter of a Si BJT in avalanche breakdown


J. Jansson, V. Koskinen, A. Mäntyniemi, J. Kostamovaara, A Multi-Channel High Precision CMOS Time-to-Digital Converter for Laser scanner Based Perception Systems, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 81, Issue 9, pp. 2581-2590, 2012.

Figure above: Distributions of single-shot measurement results for three successive stop signals.

Figure below: CMOS TDC chip, 2.4mm x 3.7mm.


P. Keränen, K. Määttä and J. Kostamovaara, A Wide Range Time-to-Digital Converter With 1ps Single-Shot Precision, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 60, Issue 9, 2011, pp. 3162-3172.

Figure above: Photograph of the TDC PCB.

Figure below: Measurement results depicting 1ps precision.


S. Kurtti, J. Kostamovaara, An Integrated Laser Radar Receiver Channel Utilizing a Time-Domain Walk Error Compensation Scheme, IEEE Transcations on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol 60, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 146-157


B. Ryvkin, E. Avrutin, J. Kostamovaara, Asymmetric-waveguide laser diode for high-power optical pulse generation by gain switching, IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology in 2009, Volume 27, Issue 12, 2009, pp. 2125 - 2131.

Figures: Measured driving current and optical output pulses from DH bulk laser diode in “enhanced gain-switching”, test driver with the on-chip laser diode.


J. Nissinen, I. Nissinen, J. Kostamovaara, Integrated Receiver Including Both Receiver Channel and TDC for a Pulsed Time-of-Flight Laser Rangefinder With cm-Level Accuracy, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 44, Issue no. 5, 2009, pp. 1486-1497.


Vainshtein, S., Kostamovaara, J., Yuferev, V., Knap, W., Fatimy, A., Diakonova, N. Terahertz emission from collapsing field domains during switching of a gallium arsenide bipolar transistor, Physical Review Letters, 26 October 2007, Vol. 99, 26 October 2007, 4 pages

Figure: An image of a comb measured with pulsed time-of-flight techniques using a GaAs BJT as the sub-THz source


Mobile and ubiquitous laser scanning and positioning

New systems and methods

H Kaartinen, J Hyyppä, A Kukko, A Jaakkola, H Hyyppä (2012). Benchmarking the Performance of Mobile Laser Scanning Systems Using a Permanent Test Field. Sensors 12 (9), 12814-12835.


A Kukko, H Kaartinen, J Hyyppä, Y Chen (2012). Multiplatform Mobile Laser Scanning: Usability and Performance. Sensors 12 (9), 11712-11733.


Chen, Y., Räikkönen,E., Kaasalainen, S., Suomalainen, J., Hakala, T., Hyyppä, J. & Chen, R. (2010). Two-channel Hyperspectral LiDAR with a Supercontinuum Laser Source. Sensors 2010, 10, 7057-7066.


Jaakkola, A., Hyyppä, J., Kukko, A., Yu, X., Kaartinen, M., Lehtomäki, M., and Y. Lin, 2010, A low-cost multi-sensoral mobile mapping system and its feasibility for tree measurements. ISPRS journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 65 (6), 514-522.


Alho, P., Kukko, A., Hyyppä, H., Kaartinen, H. and J. Hyyppä, 2009. Application of Boat-based Laser Scanning for River Survey. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms (Letters to ESEX) 34(13), 1831-1838.


Jaakkola, A., Hyyppä, J., Hyyppä, H., and A. Kukko, 2008. Retrieval Algorithms for Road Surface Modelling Based on Mobile Mapping. Sensors. [Online]. Basel, Switzerland: Molecular Diversity Preservation International, ISSN 1424-8220. DOI: 10.3390/sensors.


Kaasalainen, S., Kukko, A., Lindroos, T., Litkey, P., Kaartinen, H., Hyyppä, J., and E. Ahokas, 2008. Brightness Measurements and Calibration with Airborne and Terrestrial Laser Scanners. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote sensing, Vol. 46(2), 528-534.


Wagner, W., Hyyppä, J., Ullrich, A., Lehner, H., Briese, C., and S. Kaasalainen, 2008. Radiometric Calibration of Full-Waveform Small-Footprint Airborne Laser Scanners. 21st ISPRS Congress Beijing 2008, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVII, Part B1, 163-168.


Kaasalainen, S., Lindroos, T., and J. Hyyppä, 2007. Toward hyperspectral lidar - Measurement of spectral backscatter intensity with a supercontinuum laser source. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 4(2), 211- 215.


Matikainen, L., Kaartinen, H., and J. Hyyppä, 2007. Classification tree based building detection from laser scanner and aerial image data. ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, 12.-14.9.2007, Espoo, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVI, Part 3/W52, 280-287.


Rönnholm, P., E. Honkavaara, P. Litkey, H. Hyyppä, and J. Hyyppä, 2007. Integration of laser scanning and photogrammetry. ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, 12.-14.9.2007, Espoo, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVI, Part 3, 355-362.


Ahokas, E., Kaasalainen, S., Hyyppä, J., and J. Suomalainen, 2006. Calibration of the Optech ALTM 3100 laser scanner intensity data using brightness targets. Revue Française de Photogrammétrie et de Télédétection, No. 182 (2006-2), 10-16.


Honkavaara, E., Ahokas, E., Hyyppä, J., Jaakkola, J., Kaartinen, H., Kuittinen, R., Markelin, L., and K. Nurminen, 2006. Geometric test field calibration of digital photogrammetric sensors. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Special Issue on Digital Photogrammetric Cameras, Vol. 60(6), 387-399.


Kaasalainen, S., Ahokas, E., Hyyppä, J. and J. Suomalainen, 2005. Study of surface brightness from backscattered laser intensity: calibration of laser data. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 2(3), 255-259.


Hallikainen, M., Hyyppä, J., Haapanen, J., Tares, T., Ahola, P., Pulliainen, J., and M. Toikka, 1993. A helicopter-borne eight-channel ranging scatterometer for remote sensing, Part I: System description. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 31(1), 161-169.


Ubiquitous positioning with emerging sensing technologies

Pei L., Guinness R., Chen R., Liu J., Kuusniemi H., Chen Y., Chen L., and Kaistinen J. (2013). Human Behavior Cognition Using Smartphone Sensors. Sensors 2013, 13, 1402-1424; doi:10.3390/s130201402.


Liu J., Chen R., Pei L., Guinness R., Kuusniemi. H. (2012). Hybrid smartphone indoor positioning solution for mobile LBS. Sensors 2012 12, 17208-17233; doi:10.3390/s121217208.


Liu, J.; Chen, R.; Chen, Y.; Pei, L.; Chen, L. (2012). iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service. Sensors 2012, 12, 14612-14629.


Pei, L., Liu, J., Guinness, R., Chen, Y., Kuusniemi, H., Chen, R. (2012). Using LS-SVM Based Motion Recognition for Smartphone Indoor Wireless Positioning. Sensors. 2012; 12(5):6155-6175.


Chen, R., Chen, W., Chen, X., Zhang, X., and Y. Chen, 2011. Sensing Strides Using EMG Signal for Pedestrian Navigation. GPS Solutions, Vol. 15, 161-170.


Chen, R., Kuusniemi, H., Hyyppä, J., Zhang, J., Takala, J., Kuittinen, R., Chen, Y., Pei, L., Liu, Z, Zhu, L., Liu, J., Qin, Y., Leppäkoski, H., Wang, J., Chen, R., Kuusniemi, H., Hyyppä, J., Zhang, J., Takala, J., Kuittinen, R., Chen, Y., Pei, L., Liu, Z, Zhu, L., Liu, J., Qin, Y., Leppäkoski, H. & Wang, J. 2010. Going 3D, personal Nav and LBS. GPS World 21 2, pp. 14-18


Laser scanning for built environment

Lehtomäki M., Jaakkola, A.,Hyyppä, J., Kukko A., and H. Kaartinen, 2010. Detection of Vertical Pole-Like Objects in a Road Environment Using Vehicle-Based Laser Scanning Data. Remote Sensing 2010, 2(3), 641-664. http://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/2/3/641/


Matikainen L., Hyyppä, J., Ahokas, E., Markelin, L., and H. Kaartinen, 2010. Automatic Detection of Buildings and Changes in Buildings for Updating of Maps. Remote Sensing 2010, 2(5), 1217-1248. http://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/2/5/1217/


Kukko, A., Andrei, C.-O., Salminen, V.-M., Kaartinen, H., Chen, Y., Rönnholm, P., Hyyppä, H., Hyyppä, J., Chen, R., Haggrén, H., Kosonen, I., and K. Capek, 2007. Road environment mapping system of the Finnish Geodetic Institute - FGI ROAMER. ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, 12.-14.9.2007, Espoo, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVI, Part 3/W52, 241-247.


Kaartinen, H., Hyyppä, J., Gülch, E., Vosselman, G., Hyyppä, H., Matikainen, L., Hofmann, A.D., Mäder, U., Persson, Å., Söderman, U., Elmqvist, M., Ruiz, A., Dragoja, M., Flamanc, D., Maillet, G., Kersten, T., Carl, J., Hau, R., Wild, E., Frederiksen, L., Holmgaard, J., and K. Vester, 2005. Accuracy of 3D city models: EuroSDR comparison. Proceedings of ISPRS Workshop Laser scanning 2005, September 12-14, 2005, Enschede, The Netherlands, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVI, Part 3/W19, 227-232, CD-ROM.


Matikainen, L., Hyyppä, J., and H. Kaartinen, 2004. Automatic detection of changes from laser scanner and aerial image data for updating building maps. Proceedings of the XXth ISPRS Congress, July 2004, Istanbul, Turkey, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXV, Part B2, 434-439.


Matikainen, L., Hyyppä, J., and H. Hyyppä, 2003. Automatic detection of buildings from laser scanner data for map updating. Workshop '3-D reconstruction from airborne laserscanner and InSAR data', Dresden, Germany 8-10 October 2003. The International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXIV, Part3/WG13, 218-224.


Laser scanning for precision forestry

X Liang, J Hyyppä (2013).Automatic Stem Mapping by Merging Several Terrestrial Laser Scans at the Feature and Decision Levels. Sensors 13 (2), 1614-1634.


X Yu, X Liang, J Hyyppä, V Kankare, M Vastaranta, M Holopainen (2013). Stem biomass estimation based on stem reconstruction from terrestrial laser scanning point clouds. Remote Sensing Letters 4 (4), 344-353


H Kaartinen, J Hyyppä, X Yu, M Vastaranta, H Hyyppä, A Kukko, M Holopainen, C Heipke, M Hirschmugl, F Morsdorf, E Naesset, J Pitkänen, S Popescu, S Sohlberg, B M Wolf, J-C Wu (2012) An International Comparison of Individual Tree Detection and Extraction Using Airborne Laser Scanning. Remote Sensing 4 (4), 950-974


Yu, X., Hyyppä, J., Vastaranta, M. Holopainen, M., and R. Viitala (2011). Predicting individual tree attributes from airborne laser point clouds based on random forest technique. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 66, 28-37. Doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2010.08.003.


Hyyppä, J., Hyyppä, H., Leckie, D., Gougeon, F., Yu, X. and M. Maltamo, 2008. Review of methods of small-footprint airborne laser scanning for extracting forest inventory data in boreal forests. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 29(5), 1339-1366.


Yu, X., Hyyppä, J., Kukko, A., Maltamo, M., and H. Kaartinen, 2006. Change detection techniques for canopy height growth measurements using airborne laser scanner data. Photogrammetry Engineering & Remote Sensing, SilviScan Special Issue - Lidar Applications in Forest Assessment and Inventory, Vol. 72(12), 1339-1348.


Hyyppä, H., Yu, X., Hyyppä, J., Kaartinen, H., Honkavaara, E., and P. Rönnholm, 2005. Factors affecting the quality of DTM generation in forested areas. Proceedings of ISPRS Workshop Laser Scanning 2005, September 12-14, 2005, Enschede, The Netherlands, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVI, Part 3/W19, 85-90, CD-ROM.


Yu, X., Hyyppä, J., Kaartinen, H., and M. Maltamo, 2004. Automatic detection of harvested trees and determination of forest growth using airborne laser scanning. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 90, 451-462.


Hyyppä, J., Kelle, O., Lehikoinen, M., and M. Inkinen, 2001. A segmentation-based method to retrieve stem volume estimates from 3-dimensional tree height models produced by laser scanner. IEEE Transactions of Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, 969-975.


Hyyppä, J., Pyysalo, U., Hyyppä, H., and A. Samberg, 2001. Elevation accuracy of laser scanning-derived digital terrain and target models in forest environment. 20th EARSeL Symposium and Workshops, Dresden, Germany, 14-17 June, 2000, 8 p, CD-ROM.


Hyyppä, J., Schardt, M., Haggrén, H., Koch, B., Lohr, U., Scherrer, H.U., Paananen, R., Luukkonen, H., Ziegler, M., Hyyppä, H., Pyysalo, U., Friedländer, H., Uuttera, J., Wagner, S., Inkinen, M., Wimmer, A., Kukko, A., Ahokas, E. and M. Karjalainen, 2001. HIGH-SCAN: The first European-wide attempt to derive single-tree information from laserscanner data. The Photogrammetric Journal of Finland, Vol. 17(2), 58-68.


Hyyppä, J., Hyyppä, H., Inkinen, M., Engdahl, M., Linko, S., and Y.-H. Zhu, 2000. Accuracy comparison of various remote sensing data sources in the retrieval of forest stand attributes. Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 128, 109-120.


Hyyppä, J., and M. Hallikainen, 1996. Applicability of airborne profiling radar to forest inventory. Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 57, 39-57.